Geology / History

Tourmaline (synonymous with tourmaline group) comprises trigonal borosilicates of the cyclosilicate superclass. Compounded with elements such as aluminium, iron, magnesium, sodium, lithium, or potassium. Tourmaline is classified as a semi-precious stone & the gemstone comes in a wide variety of colours. The name comes from the Sinhalese word "Turmali” or "Thoramalli", which applied to different gemstones found in Sri Lanka & means multi coloured.
Varieties of Tourmaline
Achroite - A colourless variety of Tourmaline.
Chrome Tourmaline - An emerald-green variety of tourmaline.
Dravite - A sodium magnesium aluminium tourmaline species dark yellow to brownish black.
Elbaite - A sodium lithium aluminium tourmaline species Green, red to pink, blue, orange, yellow, colourless, multi-coloured.
Cuprian Elbaite - A copper bearing Elbaite.
Paraíba Tourmaline – blue & green copper bearing.
Indicolite - A blue gemmy variety of tourmaline (usually elbaite).
Liddicoatite - A calcium lithium tourmaline species smokey brown, pink red, blue, green & rarely white. Rubellite - A pink to red gem variety of tourmaline.
Schorl - A sodium iron aluminium tourmaline species brownish black to black.
Uvite - A calcium magnesium aluminium tourmaline species green to brown to back.
Verdelite - A green gem variety of tourmaline.
Watermelon Tourmaline - A variety of Tourmaline with colour zoning showing a pink core & green edges
By heating & subsequent cooling as well as by applying pressure & by rubbing a tourmaline crystal it will become electrically charged. It will then attract dust particles as well as small pieces of paper (pyro- & piezo-electricity).

Metaphysical Properties
A powerful stone of magic with a strong vibration. Cleanses, purifies & forms a protective shield of gladiator strength around the body. It has a strong connection to the Devic Kingdom, making it excellent for plants & gardens. Keeps pests at bay. Bury to promote growth. Banishes negativity, attracts inspiration, compassion & prosperity. Powerful mental healer, releases tension & removes blockages. Provides strong grounding, cleans aura & heals emotional wounds. Black: Protects against cell phones & strengthens immune system.

Group: Cyclosilicate
Crystal System: Trigonal
Composition: Ca,K,Na,[])(Al,Fe,Li,Mg,Mn)3(Al,Cr, Fe,V)6(BO3)3(Si,Al,B)6O18(OH,F)4
Form/Habit: Prismatic to acicular crystals
Hardness: 7-7.5
Cleavage: Poor, indistinct
Fracture: Sub-conchoidal
Lustre: Vitreous, resinous 
Streak: White
Specific Gravity: 2.85-3.35
Transparency: Transparent, translucent, opaque
R.I: 1.614-1.666
Colour: Most commonly black, but can range from colourless, white, brown, violet, yellow, orange, blue, red, green, pink, or bi-coloured, or even tri-coloured.
Birefringence: 0.014-0.040
Pleochroism: Pink tourmaline - distinct: colourless-pink - pinkish-red; Orange/brown tourmaline - strong: yellowish-brown – dark (greenish)-brown; Yellow tourmaline - distinct: pale yellow - dark yellow; Violet/purple tourmaline - strong: light purple - purple; Blue - strong: light blue - dark blue; Green - strong: yellow-green - dark green
Fluorescence: Mostly inert weak red to violet in long & short wave

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