Emerald is a gemstone variety of the mineral beryl. Its green colour occurs from trace amounts of chromium & sometimes vanadium. The name Emerald is derived from the Ancient Greek word smaragdos (σμάραγδος) which means green stone. For an Emerald gem to be considered top quality gem material it must possess a pure verdant green hue & a high degree of transparency. Flawless faceted emeralds exceeding 5 carats are very rare. In antiquity Emeralds have been mined in Egypt since 1500 BC. Mining in India & Austria dates to at least the 14th century BC.
Emeralds are formed by hydrothermal processes associated with magma & also through metamorphism. Often found near Quartz & with biotite schists, clay shales, in lime stones & with pegmatites. Emeralds are found all over the world, however modern day mining sees Colombia responsible for 50–95% of world production & by far the world's largest producer of Emeralds. Rare 'trapiche' emeralds are found in Colombia. They are distinguished by a six-pointed radial pattern that consists of ray-like spokes of dark carbon impurities.
The gem industry has created a distinction between Vanadium-bearing Emeralds & Chromium-bearing Emerald. The term Colombian Emerald is attributed to the Vanadium variety. The UK & Europe do not consider Vanadium Emerald / Colombian Emerald to be true Emerald, however the USA does. Many fakes are circulated on the market. Both hydrothermal & flux-growth synthetics have been produced as well as method for producing an emerald overgrowth on colourless beryl.

Metaphysical Properties
A stone of inspiration. Emerald brings peace & harmony to relationships while attracting like-minded people. This stone has a strong connection to the forest & all who dwell in the natural realms. It can facilitate communication with the fae & nature spirits. Emerald resonates beautifully with the heart chakra & instils unconditional love. Great for those scorned by love as it is a powerful heart opener & energiser that drives a purifying green light into every aspect of the ethereal body. This penetrating light radiates love & compassion that fills the spirit with pure joy releasing emotional hurts or wounds.
Emerald has a unique ability to make obstacles seemingly disappear as it brings clarity to illuminate the correct path. When manifesting, Emerald is a powerful ally as it increases energetic transmissions & propels intent. Its growth orientated spiral like energy has many benefits in healing of mind, body, soul & Earth. When needing to achieve a goal quickly it brings focus & knowing. Also an excellent support stone when experiencing unhappy or stressful times Emerald is very comforting, bringing hope, courage & determination.
Ideal for recovery on the mental, physical & spiritual planes as it holds infinite regenerative powers. Emerald helps to increase vision & wisdom guiding one to look outside the box. Also a greatly protective stone that shields psychic attack & deflects negative energy.

Crystal Healing
Eases chest infections, cold/flus & nausea. Boots immunity & quickens recovery processes. Good for the heart & blood. Helpful in treating lungs, muscular issues & eyes. A great detoxifier. Excellent for trauma recovery.

Group: Beryl - Cyclosilicates
Crystal System: Hexagonal
Composition: Be₃Al₂(SiO₃)₆          
Form/Habit: Hexagonal prisms
Hardness: 7.5-8
Cleavage: Indistinct
Fracture: Conchoidal, uneven, brittle
Lustre: Vitreous
Streak: White
Specific Gravity: Average 2.76
Transparency: Transparent to opaque
R.I: nω = 1.564–1.595, nε = 1.568–1.602
Colour: Green shades to colourless
Birefringence: δ = 0.0040–0.0070
Fluorescence: None -some fracture filling materials used to improve emerald's clarity do fluoresce, but the stone itself does not.
Pleochroism:Strong dichroism: yellow green - blue green
Causes of Colour: Cr3+ and/or V3+ in octahedral coordination.

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